Aspects of The Concept of Incarnational Service: 

A Constructive Critical Analysis of Criticism J. Todd Billings


  • Marselina Grace Kelly STT Reformed Indonesia



Incarnational Ministry, Christo-Praxis, Urban Mission, ministry in union with Christ


Based on Christian belief in Incarnation of Christ, many theologians developing the concept and the model of ministry which called incarnational ministry. This concept is relevant for developing cross-cultural ministry, including the urban mission. Yet, this concept has its own problem. Many theologians have critics on incarnational ministry. One of them who has a strong argument toward incarnational ministry is J. Todd Billings. He has solid, clear, and directed critics toward incarnational ministry. He has conveyed his contra arguments including some important aspects on incarnational ministry. Especially on biblical, theological, and practical aspects on incarnational ministry. In practical of incarnational ministry concepts, Billings stated that incarnational ministry can’t be used as a serving “model” because of its abstract pattern. Incarnational ministry become abstract because this model does irrelevant and ineffective terms in created the service model which focused on Christ. Especially, in contextual way, incarnational ministry can’t be used as a “model” for cross-cultural missionary. Billings stated that Union with Christ concept is more appropriated used as a model for serving. Because God reveals Himself in a specific and unique way. Humility of Christ become a concrete way to adopt as a model of service and as a Christian lifestyle. Through fairly research toward Christo-praxis aspects in incarnational ministry and fairly with Billings critics, I found that in either way Billings critics that has not strongly foundation. But, in another way, concept of ministry in union with Christ does not has a opposite ways or change the concept of incarnational ministry. Instead of changing the incarnational concept, ministry in union with Christ concept can be a complete forms and constructive arguments to develop the incarnational ministry concept as a model of service in both cross-cultural ministry and urban ministry.


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How to Cite

Aspects of The Concept of Incarnational Service: : A Constructive Critical Analysis of Criticism J. Todd Billings. (2023). TRANSFORMATIO: Jurnal Teologi, Pendidikan, Dan Misi Integral , 1(01), 1-13.